(Public Records & Published Resources used for Reference)

Typically, writers of non-fiction go straight to the source when it comes to each and every point of interest brought up within the text of their manuscript, utilizing as few secondary sources as possible. This book intended as a pulp story, meshed with historical context, I have chosen to obtain only that documentation required for the investigation of certain historical elements of my story–and have often gone no further. This has been done due to the realities of A) research never being over, and B) getting more expensive the deeper you delve into your subject matter. For additional assistance, I have obtained permissions to reference the work of others, including book authors and proprietors of certain web sites; many of which have better informed my prose and peppered my story with colorful detail.


Acts of Texas Legislature and the Texas Dept. of Public Safety. “Texas Ranger Hall of Fame: John B. Armstrong.” Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum. http://www.texasranger.org/halloffame/Armwstrong_John.htm (2 April 2009). Great bio on Armstrong; very helpful.

Bankes, James. “Wild Bill Hickok.” HistoryNet.com. Weider History Group. http://www.historynet.com/wild-bill-hickok.htm (19 Dec. 2007). (Article first appeared in Wild West magazine, August, 1996). The first of several insightful articles at HistoryNet.com, referenced while fact checking generalities and specifics, regarding the western legends and myths mentioned here.

Barra, Allen. Inventing Wyatt Earp: His Life and Many Legends. 2nd ed. New York: Carrol and Graff Publishers, 1998. Not enough can be said about this in-depth biography. Arguably the best ever written on Wyatt. As with Paula Mitchell Marks’ own book, this was an invaluable tool; greatly assisting me in the coordination of certain details surrounding the gunfight in Tombstone.

Beck, Henry Cabot. “The “Western” Godfather: Kurt Russell spills the beans.” True West, 2006, 22-28. A great article (especially for fans of the movie) containing a revealing interview about the film Tombstone, with actor Kurt Russell. twmag.com.   

Bell, Bob Boze. Jane C. Bischoff. Mark Boardman. Jana Bommersbach. Marilyn Kennedy. Meghan Saar. Phil Spangenberger. “The 125’th Anniversary of the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral.” True West, 2006, 34-41. Informative and entertaining commemorative article. twmag.com.

Bishop, Curtis. “Brazos Flood of 1899.” Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Society. http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/BB/ydb1.html (16 March 2009). Background facts concerning the regional environment in Nacogdoches, Texas, in specified year. NEW LINK:  http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/ydb01

Blount, Lois Foster. “SOME LEAVES FROM THE ‘TREASURER’S REGISTER OF PROPERTY AND CLAIMS BELONGING TO THE TRUSTEES OF THE NACOGDOCHES UNIVERSITY AND OF DEBTS DUE BY THE TRUSTEES’.” The Center for East Texas Studies. Stephen F. Austin State University. http://www.cets.sfasu.edu/VR/pages/blountoldu.htm. One of two very helpful web pages, detailing the Old University Building in Nacogdoches.  

Borunda, Daniel. “Shootout at OK Corral nightclub in Juarez leaves 4 dead.” Elpasotimes.com. Elpaso Times and Media Newsgroup. elpasotimes.com (29 September 2008). A news item brought to my attention by a good friend in Texas very familiar with the dynamics of this book.

Clerk of the Superior Court; Bisbee, Arizona; Cochise County. Coroner’s Inquest Books: Billy Clanton No. 48 (alternately known as No. 45,) Morgan Earp No. 68, Warren Earp No. 434. Incredibly helpful in studying the legendary Gunfight at the OK Corral. This information is generally available elsewhere, but having actual copies of these documents in hand, was invaluable for research purposes.

Cutrer, Thomas W. “Armstrong, John Barclay.” Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Society. http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/far10.html (16 March 2009). Another great bio on the former Ranger. NEW LINK: http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/far10

“Dallas History Items: Colonel Green’s Automobile, 1899.” Dallas Historical Society. http://www.dallashistory.org/history/dallas/colonel_green.htm (16 March 2009). The man known, as “Colonel Green” was in fact the principal source and influence for the “Man with the Automobile,” as mentioned in my story. And this page was one of two that were very helpful in how he was portrayed.

Darby, Howard. “The Classifications of Fast Draw.” The Fast Draw Resource Center, “The Gunfighter Zone. http://www.fastdraw.org/fd_class.html (26 April 2008). Selected for the illustrated description of James Butler “Wild Bill” Hickok’s “twist” method of drawing.

DeArment, R. K. “Bat Masterson.” HistoryNet.com. Weider History Group. http://www.historynet.com/bat-masterson.htm (19 Dec. 2007). (Article first appeared in Wild West magazine, June, 2001). Solid reference for Masterson’s time in Manhattan.

Dobson, Geoff. “Tom Horn.” Wyoming Tails and Trailshttp://wyomingtalesandtrails.com/horn.html. (14 Feb. 2008). Further distillation of some facts found in Monaghan’s book, Last of the Bad Men: The Legend of Tom Horn. Additional opinions are of constant assistance.  

East Texas Research Center. Ralph W. Steen Library, Stephen F. Austin University. http://libweb.sfasu.edu/proser/etrc/ (16 March 2009). Supportive in many respects–mainly photographic knowledge for orienting the geography of Nacogdoches, Texas in 1899, as well as the presence of the African American Lumbermen, Local Businesses, and the existence and contents of assorted County documents.

Hadley, Craig. Editor. A 19th Century Slang Dictionary. MCH Historical Services Publication. Chattanooga, TN 2000. Great reference when in need of extraneous period colloquialisms, jargon, and general dialect.

“History Topics: Northfield Raid and the James-Younger Gang.” Minnesota Historical Society. http://www.mnhs.org/library/tips/history_topics/16northfield.html (16 March 2009). Used principally for the links at the bottom of the page, re: photographic reference.  

In Search Of…Butch Cassidy. Film. Directed by H.G. Stark, 1978. Alan Landsburg Productions. Neat summary of the Butch Cassidy/William T. Phillips scenario.

Jordhal, Rick. “Lawrence Raid Page 1.” Civil War Album.com. http://www.civilwaralbum.com/misc/kansas_lawrence1.htm (25 April 2008). Solid description of the Raid on Lawrence Kansas. Special thanks to Bruce Schulz for this one.

Layton, Steve. “The Better to See You With: Hunting Optics.” West Florida Electric. West Florida Electric Cooperative, Inc. http://www.westflorida.coop/clf/archives/clf_detail1985.aspx?id=524 (16 March 2009). Referenced for mention of the Allen & Thurber Sighting Scope.

Library of Congress. “Dime Novels.” American Treasures of the Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/tri015.html (16 March 2009). The first of two sites referencing these publications.

Library of Congress. “Fire Insurance Map: Tombstone, Arizona. New York: Sanborn Map and Publishing Company, 1886.” American Treasures of the Library of Congress, Geography & Map Division. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trr016.html (9 May 2006). The source which almost everyone starts from when approximating the mapping of locations of buildings and businesses in Tombstone, Arizona in October of 1881.  

Marks, Paula Mitchell. And Die in the West: The Story of the OK Corral Gunfight. 1st ed. New York: Touchstone, 1990. Probably the first concise examination of the street-fight published; and very helpful as one of three primary sources used by this author. The others of course being Allen Barra’s book, the actual documentation obtained from the State of Arizona, a reprinted copy of the Tombstone Epitaph, and finally, the Turner book.  

McCarty, Nick. Billy the Kid: Outlaw Legend. http://www.angelfire.com/mi2/billythekid/ (16 March 2009). Among other interesting information, contains a page questioning whether or not Jesse James ever met Billy “Kid” Bonney. Something I took great joy in having Frank James reference within the Saloon in Nacogdoches. Maybe it happened. Or maybe the rumors simply go that far back and Frank James himself had heard about it, just like everyone else.

McDonald, Archie P. “Nacogdoches, Texas.” Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Society.  http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/NN/hdn1.html (16 March 2009). More background info. NEW LINK: http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/hdn01

McLelland, Gary S. “Shootout “Near” the OK Corral.” Old West History.net. http://oldwesthistory.net/page26.html/ (19 Dec. 2007). Wonderful reprints of news items around the time of the events in Tombstone.

Meadows, Anne, and Daniel Buck. “The Last Days of Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid.” HistoryNet.com. Weider History Group. http://www.historynet.com/the-last-days-of-butch-cassidy-and-the-sundance-kid.htm (19 Dec. 2007). (Article first appeared in Wild West magazine, February, 1997). Detailed reporting of the nature of these two men, along with what was reported to be last days of their lives.

Minnesota Department of Education. “Northfield Historical Society.” Minnesota Reflections, Minnesota Digital Library. http://reflections.mndigital.org/cdm4/browse.php?CISOROOT=%2Fnfh (16 March 2009). More photographic reference and documentation. Much here greatly assisted my descriptions of Northfield, as well as the bank robbery, and the various participants in the incident.   

Monaghan, Jay. Last of the Bad Men: the Legend of Tom Horn. Indianapolis-New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1946. Breathes adventure, and though non-fiction, still a hell of a fun read for western fans.

National Weather Service. “North Central Texas Annual Weather Review: 1890s.” National Weather Service Forecast Office, Fort. Worth, TX.   http://www.srh.noaa.gov/fwd/CLIMO/annreview/1890s.html (16 March 2009). Assisted in determining climate conditions in the area of East Texas during November of 1899.

Paul, Jan S. Gene Carlisle. “Frontier Lawman Virgil Earp.” HistoryNet.com. Weider History Group. http://www.historynet.com/frontier-lawman-virgil-earp.htm (19 Dec. 2007). (Article first appeared in Wild West magazine, February, 2002). Additional source for information on Virgil; especially his character, additional occupations, and death.

Rice County Journal, Northfield, MN., Thursday, September 14, 1876; Vol. V., No. 2. Minnesota Historical Society. The local newspaper at the center of the maelstrom, and a fascinating reading experience.

Roark, Mrs. Garland. “Old Nacogdoches University Virtual Tour.” The Center for East Texas Studies. Stephen F. Austin State University. http://www.cets.sfasu.edu/VR/pages/oldu.htm (16 March 2009). Useful and highly descriptive details about the site of a historical Nacogdoches landmark: the Old University Building.  

Roberts, Gary L. “Bat Masterson and the Sweetwater Shootout.” HistoryNet.com. Weider History Group. http://www.historynet.com/bat-masterson-and-the-sweetwater-shootout.htm (19 Dec. 2007). (Article first appeared in Wild West magazine, October, 2000). This assisted with explanation of Masterson’s name-making shootout, and info on his general background.

Rosa, Joseph G. “Wild Bill Hickok: Pistoleer, Peace Officer and Folk Hero.” HistoryNet.com. Weider History Group. http://www.historynet.com/wild-bill-hickok-pistoleer-peace-officer-and-folk-hero.htm (19 Dec. 2007). (Article first appeared in Wild West magazine, June, 2006). Better informs my description of Hickok.

Rule, Deb Houdek. Geo Rule. “Interview with Cole Younger.” Civil War St. Louis. http://www.civilwarstlouis.com/History2/jamescoleinterview.htm (25 Jan 2008).

—“James and Youngers: The Northfield, Minnesota Robbery.” Civil War St. Louis. http://www.civilwarstlouis.com/History/jamesnorthfield.htm (25 Jan. 2008).

—“James and Youngers: The Outlaws.” Civil War St. Louis. http://www.civilwarstlouis.com/History/jamesgangoutlaws.htm (25 Jan. 2008).

—“James and Youngers: Quotes.” Civil War St. Louis. http://www.civilwarstlouis.com/History/jamesgangquotes.htm (25 Jan. 2008).

—“James and Youngers: The Robberies.”  Civil War St. Louis. http://www.civilwarstlouis.com/History/jamesgangrobberies.htm (25 Jan. 2008).

Originally sought for little more than added details for my description of the bank raid. Though by default, these pages quickly filled in all kinds of holes in my Northfield investigation, some of which I didn’t even realize were there. A concise and informative website, put together with great tenacity.

Silva, Lee A. “Gunfight at the O.K. Corral: Did Tom McLaury Have a Gun.” HistoryNet.com. Weider History Group. http://www.historynet.com/gunfight-at-the-ok-corral-did-tom-mclaury-have-a-gun.htm (19 Dec. 2007). (Article first appeared in Wild West magazine, October, 2006). A nagging question which I never really answered for myself, but this article did help reduce my mental anguish; always nice to have a figurative shoulder to cry on.

Smith, Robert Benjamin. “Buffalo Bill’s Skirmish at Warbonnet Creek.” HistoryNet.com. Weider History Group. http://www.historynet.com/buffalo-bills-skirmish-at-warbonnet-creek.htm (19 Dec. 2007) (Article first appeared in Wild West magazine, December, 1996). The revelations of Custer’s comments fascinated me.

Stanford University. “Dime Novels and Penny Dreadfuls.” Stanford University Libraries and Academic Information Resources. http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/dp/pennies/home.html (18 March 2009). The second of two sites; both of which greatly helped to nail down certain facts, dates, and other details about dime novels.

Star Trek: Season 3 (Remastered) “Specter of the Gun”. DVD. Directed by Vincent McEveety, 1968. Paramount Television, Norway Corporation. Paramount Home Video, 2007. Not accurate, but fun nonetheless; for both Star Trek fans, and history buffs.

Tefertiller, Casey, and Jeff Morey. “O.K. Corral: A Gunfight Shrouded in Mystery.” HistoryNet.com. Weider History Group. http://www.historynet.com/ok-corral-a-gunfight-shrouded-in-mystery.htm (19 Dec. 2007). (Article fist appeared in Wild West magazine, October, 2001). Again, it’s always comforting to have as many second opinions on top of your own, as possible.

Testimony of Earp-Holliday Hearing, Earp Collection. Document 94. Miscellaneous Cochise County Records, Arizona Historical Foundation. Hayden Library, Arizona State University. Obtained from a separate State Agency, this is the essential second and larger part of the relevant testimony concerning the street fight in Tombstone.

Texas State Library and Archives Commission. “Texas Adjutant General’s Department: An Inventory of Spanish-American War Military Rolls at the Texas State Archives, 1898-1899, 1901, undated.” Texas Archival Resources Online. http://www.lib.utexas.edu/taro/tslac/30076/tsl-30076.html (11 April 2009). Solid data on role of Stone Fort Rifles in the Spanish American War.

The Tombstone Epitaph, Daily Edition, Tombstone, Cochise County, Arizona Territory. The Tombstone Epitaph, 1981. These original newspaper reports–also notated during the actual court hearings by newsmen, as opposed to the court reporter–sometimes vary slightly in their content, and thus, their context.

Traywick, Ben T. “Doc Holliday.” HistoryNet.com. Weider History Group. http://www.historynet.com/doc-holliday.htm (19 Dec. 2007). (Article first appeared in Wild West magazine, October, 1997). Great additional background information on Holliday.

Turner, Alfred E., ed. The O.K. Corral Inquest. 1st ed. College Station, Texas: Creative Publishing Company, 1981. Handy edited printing of both Hearings, with interesting footnotes, well researched and written by author, Turner.

Undiscovered History: Shootout at the OK Corral. DVD. Directed by Robert M. Wise, 2006. Termite Art Productions; Discovery Channel Productions, Inc; Lionsgate Entertainment. Interesting and compelling documentary, and regardless of its minor flaws (author’s opinion,) still a must for anyone studying the gunfight.  

The Wild West: The Gunfight at the OK Corral. DVD. Directed by David Stewart, 2007. A BBC/Discovery Channel Production.  Docu-drama containing as much drama as documentary, but still helpful as an alternate point of view. Worth a view if you can find an all-region player for the PAL Region 2 DVD.

Williams, Burton J. “Quantrill’s Raid on Lawrence, Kansas: A Question of Complicity.” Kansas Historical Quarterly. Kansas State Historical Society. http://www.kshs.org/publicat/khq/1968/68_2_williams.htm (1 May. 2008) For Frank’s remembrance of a truly horrifying event. NEW LINK: http://www.kshs.org/p/kansas-historical-quarterly-quantrill-s-raid-on-lawrence/13185

“The Winona Daily Republican, Winona Minnesota.” Friday Evening, September 8, 1876; Saturday Evening, September 9, 1876; Monday Evening, September 11, 1876. Winona Newspaper Project. Darrell W. Krueger Library, Winona State University, Winona County, MN. (24 Mar. 2009). http://apa.olivesoftware.com/Default/Skins/WinonaA/Client.asp?skin=WinonaA. Very useful when paired with reports of The Rice County Journal. In fact, each description of events is needed to discern the full details of the entire incident. NEW LINK: http://apa.olivesoftware.com/Default/Skins/WinonaA/Client.asp?skin=WinonaA&AW=1304814449754&AppName=2

“Wm. Malcolm Scopes – An American Original.” ScopesGuide.com. http://www.scopesguide.com/wm-malcolm-scopes.html (2 April 2009). Wonderful description of a type of scope available in 1899, which could have been used, as described in my story.

Young, Nancy Beck. “Houston East and West Railway.” Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Society. http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/HH/egh14.html (4 January 2010). Further source for a general understanding of the local railway operating in Nacogdoches. NEW LINK: http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/eqh14


One response

  1. I try and keep the links updated. However, a few of them seem to be permanently broken. I endeavor to reproduce them with help from the original site, but in some cases, these pages have been entirely deleted by the owner. During the process of collecting reference material, I saved all of these pages to a file on my hard drive, and I am currently working on a way to upload pdf’s of this lost information to my blog.

    In the meantime, if you have any questions, please feel free to ask.

    August 7, 2011 at 1:33 PM

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