WESTERN LEGEND FOOTNOTES

These are footnotes intended to be included in the book and read within the context of certain passages.  They are additional historical details the reader will find of interest.  The Publisher’s Editors arbitrarily moved them all to the back end of the book.  I think you’ll see how that would have been pointless — and worse, confusing.  The page numbers correspond to first the page in the pdf file (if you’re reading that,) and next the page number as printed at the bottom of each page of the book file.

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REMOVED FROM: “CHAPTER 9 — NORTHFIELD”

pdf page 122, book page 112

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Not a moment later, the First Three Men, already positioned at Lee & Hitchcock’s, spotted the Second Two approaching … and began walking toward the Bank.  The voice of a citizen was distantly heard shouting, “It’s a St. Albans Raid!”   But due to the sound of street traffic, few heard this muffled plea.

Footnote:

A “St. Albans Raid,” was known as a strategic approach used by Confederate soldiers during the War Between the States, that had originated in a town called St. Albans.  The raid involved using iterations or echelons of men on approach, with the intent of gradually slipping a large number of men into a town for the purpose of committing a raid, without causing too much initial suspicion on the part of the township.


pdf page 125, book page 115

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Cole reeled. He drew and pointed his pistol point blank at Wheeler —

“Get out of here, dingus!” Cole shouted.

Footnote:

Evidence suggests that Jesse James’ nickname from an early age may have either been, “Jesse Dingus,” or simply, “Dingus.”  Leading to the possible conclusion that instead of eye-witnesses hearing the phrase, “Get out of here, Dingus,” they may have simply heard, “Get out here, Dingus!”  This would be in the event that either Jesse was the brother within the bank, or that Clell was calling for the last echelon of three men, still at the bridge.


pdf page 128, book page 118

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Down the street, a man named Nicholas Gustafson stepped right into the line of fire as he exited a pub intoxicated, with curious, yet ubiquitous interest.  The men on horseback variously shouted at him to get out of the way, but Gustafson was a recent arrival to Northfield, as well as the U.S., and spoke only Swedish.  Various members of the James-Younger Gang barked orders and shouted obscenities at him, while waving their guns in the air. But Gustafson had little comprehension of the meaning, and a moment later he was grazed above the eye by a stray shot. A shot which wouldn’t immediately kill him, but strangely put him in critical condition less than a day later, and result in his death within a week.  In a later interview, Cole Younger attributed that shot, to “Woods.”

Footnote:

In a strange sidebar, the Winona Daily Republican reported that a Norwegian man with the curious name of Tosten Tostenson was shot with profound similarity.  If correct, he was hit with a round at the right side of his head, below the ear, with the ball running under his scalp and emerging from the top of his head; leaving him paralyzed for several minutes.  If this information was correctly reported, then this potentially provides a more accurate description of Nicholas Gustafson’s actual injury.


pdf page 135, book page 125

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Cole Younger was the last to follow. As he raced to catch up, he heard his brother Bob shouting, “My God, boys; hold on! Don’t leave me; I’m shot!”  Cole then rode back to the area opposite an establishment referred to as Mr. Morris’s Store, leaned over, and pulled his brother up onto the horse.

Footnote:

There are versions of the preceding scenario, whereby the horn of Cole’s saddle ripped off, and his reins were sliced; both by constant gunfire.


pdf page 135, book page 125

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J.B. Hyde then reportedly fired a reloaded shotgun at Bob Younger, striking him in the wrist as the men fled; possibly shooting off his thumb.

Footnote:

There is contrasting information which details the infliction of this wound much later, while the men were being assailed in the backwoods of Minnesota.


REMOVED FROM: “CHAPTER 10 — STREET FIGHT”

pdf page 145, book page 135

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In painting the perspective of Tombstone’s Residents, it should be noted that many people–some of which had seen all kinds of hell in their lifetime and still genuinely regarded this fight a very disturbing event — were aghast at the shooting.  A 1929 reenactment staged during a celebration in honor of Tombstone’s 50-year Anniversary, called “Helldorado,” prompted former mayor, John Clum, to denounce its inclusion in the Celebration.  This from the Arizona Historical Review, circa 1930: “The mock street battle between the city police and the rustlers was a grim exhibition that should have been omitted. The spectacle of men engaged in mortal combat is repulsive and distressing.”  And he added, “The lamentable clash between the city police and the rustlers on October 26, 1881, occasioned more partisan bitterness than anything else that ever occurred in that community — and traces of that bitterness linger even to this day.  There was no justification for the inclusion of that gruesome act in the Helldorado program, and, in my judgment, the mock street fight was reprehensible — even from a Helldorado standpoint.”

Footnote:

Bell, Bob Boze, Jane C. Bischoff, Mark Boardman, Jana Bommersbach, Marilyn Kennedy, Meghan Saar, and Phil Spangenberger.  “The 125th Anniversary of the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral.”  True West magazine, October 2006, Volume 53, Issue 8, twmag.com


pdf page 146, book page 136

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In its infancy, the generalized term “COW-BOYS,” or “Vaqueros” in Spanish, referred to Mexican cattlemen working the plains of Texas.  (Though there is evidence that the term may actually pre-date this.)  However, by the mid 19th Century the meaning of this term had evolved into a myriad of connotations.  One of which applied to men engaged in what by then had become an often sordid occupation: cattle thieving.

Footnote:

Due to documented facts regarding the Cowboys “Gang” being cluttered with inaccuracies, it must be reiterated that it has never been proven to what extent the individuals discussed here were actually entrenched in the notorious gang.  Theories and opinions vary, from the Clanton’s and McLaury’s essentially leading the gang, to neither having more than a cursory role in their more illegal activities.  The truth, as usual, is probably somewhere in between.


pdf page 152, book page 142

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According to Wyatt, the shouting lasted three or four minutes.  Following that interval, Earp called to his brother Morgan in the adjoining saloon, and suggested that he put a stop to it. Morgan crossed the bar room, and hopped up and sat on the counter.  Clanton even claimed that the younger Earp slid his hand inside his vest and kept it there, staring Ike down with a cold glare.  Ike then turned and saw Doc’s hand under his coat, possibly on a hidden pistol.

Instantly, Ike began crying foul.

Footnote:

A one-sided claim, which the Reader is urged to remember comes to us from a man strongly under the influence.


pdf Page 153, book page 143

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“Whole thing spilled out into the street,” Virgil said, “I came out of the Oriental down the street there, and threatened to arrest ‘em both, then ordered ‘em both to separate.  Doc went on to bed, directly…but Ike was rattled.  He hung around, told Wyatt he wasn’t fixed right; said in the morning he’d have man-for-man with Holliday; said fightin’ talk had been going on long enough, was time to fetch it to a close, blah, blah, blah…” Virgil rolled his eyes.  “Wyatt told him that he didn’t want to fight anyone if he could help it, because there was no money in it…

Footnote:

Possibly a statement Wyatt made inside of the Oriental Saloon, in front of a large crowd of gamblers.


pdf page 157, book page 147

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Spotting Wyatt, Ike began to turn away.  He got halfway around, when Virgil snuck up behind; knocked him against a wall; snatched the rifle away with his left hand; drew his own pistol with his right; and “buffaloed” Ike across the left side of his head, just above the ear.

Footnote:

“Buffaloing” a man, was an act that involved pistol-whipping an individual with the handle of a six-gun somewhere in the bodily area between the head and upper back.


 

pdf page 161, book page 151

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When McLaury’s head came up, his eyes were wide, bugged-out.  He stood; staggering from severe dizziness; blood soaking his hair.  Once retrieving both his hat and the silver band which fit around it, an elderly man was said to help Tom down 4th, across Allen and toward Fremont.

Footnote:

Possibly “Major Frink,” a man who owned a cabin not far from the McLaury’s and whom reportedly came into town with Tom’s brother Frank and Ike’s brother Billy.


pdf page 170, book page 160

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According to the testimony of both Kehoe and Behan, Frank responded that he would never do so, as long as people in Tombstone behaved the way they did.  And as Behan had warned Virgil, Frank also added that he would not disarm until the Earps disarmed.  The Sheriff threatened to publicly arrest Frank, and Frank consented that he would go, without putting up a fight.

Footnote:

Coleman was referring to the vacant lot owned by W. A. Harwood, the resident of a small house adjacent to the lot.  Unofficially, this lot was considered the “West End Corral,” or the “west end” of the OK Corral.


pdf page 171, book page 161

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Once they began moving, eye-witnesses observed Virgil trade Holliday the Wells Fargo shotgun for his cane.  Holliday concealed the weapon under a long gray coat he wore, that reached beneath his knees.

Footnote:

Regarding Doc’s use of the cane, there’s a theory that months before these events, the Earps were a part of a posse that may have killed the Clanton’s father in regional Skeleton Canyon.  Old Man Clanton and other Cowboys were said to have been herding Mexican cattle illegally, something which had caused political problems with the government of Mexico.  And law enforcement in Arizona had been instructed to do something about it.  Doc himself may have been a part of said posse and been wounded in a gun battle, later necessitating the use of a cane.  But all of this, of course, is only a theory.


pdf page 174, book page 164

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Within the 18-foot wide vacant lot, the Cow-boys overheard the footfalls of the Earps and Holliday approaching, along with the sound of whispering voices trailing them.  Six men were now present in the vacant lot.  Ike and Billy Clanton, Frank and Tom McLaury, a friend of theirs named Billy Claiborne, and an acquaintance named Wesley Fuller.  Hearing the Earps and Holiday approach, Fuller immediately retreated deeper into the lot, hiding in a space between Fly’s Lodging House and the small building in back, which Fly used as his Daguerreotype Photographic Studio and Gallery.

Footnote:

Kate “Big Nose” Elder claimed years later to have in part observed the gunfight from somewhere within Fly’s Lodging House, though this was never substantiated by an additional witness.


pdf page 176, book page 166

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Ike backed into the approximate center of the lot near Billy Claiborne; both men clearly agitated.  Within a second of Virgil giving the order for the Cow-boys to throw up their hands, Claiborne had the common sense to throw up his left hand, and quickly dart deeper into the rear of the lot.  He may’ve even dropped a pistol to the ground.  Then came the sound of two hammers being cocked: CLICK; CLICK.

Footnote:

Many historians have attributed this to Doc and Morgan, while many others have attributed the action to Frank and Billy.  The television program, Unsolved History: Shootout at the OK Corral rested the blame squarely on the cocking of both barrels of the Wells Fargo messenger shotgun in Holliday’s hands — though none of the participants on either side of the actual confrontation would ever identity the culprit throughout their testimony.


pdf page 179, book page 169

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In the next instant, locomotive engineer H.F. Sills, watched as Virgil switched the cane to his left hand, drew his pistol “border style,” and fired off a single shot before a shot from either Billy Clanton or Tom McLaury hit him in the calf.  Virgil went down, standing immediately, returning fire in Billy’s general direction.  The horse Tom was using as a fortification shifted position, (there is speculation that Wyatt either shot, or shot “at” one of the horses,) and Tom lost his grasp on the Winchester rifle.

Footnote:

He may have also unexpectedly procured a pistol.  The Earps claimed that Tom then fired twice over the horse’s back.  Some time later, Wyatt Earp reported that Wesley Fuller claimed to have taken Tom’s pistol from the ground, and either kept it as a souvenir, or sold it as a morbid artifact.


pdf page 169, book page 179

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Doc instantly turned in his direction, stepped forward, and fired one barrel of the shotgun (this would’ve been done with one arm; remember the pistol was in his other hand,) striking Tom McLaury in his exposed right side.  Doc took two or three steps backward into the near center of the street, and Tom slapped his chest, staggering backward; possibly firing one last wild shot (if he had a pistol) before leaving the lot and staggering wild down Fremont toward 3rd.

Footnote:

Both William Allen and Wesley Fuller — associates of the Cowboys — claimed that Tom staggered deeper into the vacant lot, as far back as the vacant space between the two separate buildings of Fly’s establishment, before staggering around the rear of Harwood house.

No other testimony confirms this.


pdf page 171, book page 181

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“I’ve got you now, Doc!” He said.

Distantly, Reuben Franklin Coleman shouted back, “You’ve got it now!”

“Well you’re a good one if you have!” Doc replied, according to eyewitness testimony.

Footnote:

Many claimed, including more than one newspaper of that era, that what Doc actually said was a variation on, ‘Well you’re a daisy if you have!’ But this iconic statement is not actually supported by testimony of eye-witnesses.


pdf page 182, book page 172

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Simultaneous to this, Doc and Morgan both fired on Frank. Frank fell to his knees, stooped over, with a bullet hole behind his ear, then fell on his head, “…toward the North, at the corner of a little house, west of Fly’s.”

Footnote:

According to testimony of those who later examined his pistol, Frank had only fired four shots, and Billy’s pistol had two, possibly three empty chambers.  However, going by court testimony, each of these men had supposedly fired at least five times.



REMOVED FROM: “CHAPTER 11 — FORMIDABLE”

pdf page 189, book page 179

Corresponding Text:

He soon took to carrying a small revolver, and even picked up a knife as well, at some point.  And he also began drinking.

Footnote:

Many years later, Wyatt would comment that Doc sometimes drank three quarts of whiskey a day — probably a comment intended derisively.

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